Kurikulum 2013, kurikulum untuk abad 21

14 Januari, 2013

Pelaksanaan penyusunan kurikulum 2013 adalah bagian dari melanjutkan pengembangan Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi (KBK) yang telah dirintis pada tahun 2004 dengan mencakup kompetensi sikap, pengetahuan, dan keterampilan secara terpadu, sebagaimana amanat UU 20 tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional pada penjelasan pasal 35, di mana kompetensi lulusan merupakan kualifikasi kemampuan lulusan yang mencakup sikap, pengetahuan, dan keterampilan sesuai dengan standar nasional yang telah disepakati. Paparan ini merupakan bagian dari uji publik Kurikulum 2013, yang diharapkan dapat menjaring pendapat dan masukan dari masyarakat.

Menambah Jam Pelajaran

Strategi pengembangan pendidikan dapat dilakukan pada upaya meningkatkan capaian pendidikan melalui pembelajaran siswa aktif berbasis kompetensi; efektivitas pembelajaran melalui kurikulum, dan peningkatan kompetensi dan profesionalitas guru; serta lama tinggal di sekolah dalam arti penambahan jam pelajaran.

gambar1

skema1

Skema 1. menyajikan tentang Strategi Peningkatan Efektivitas Pembelajaran. Sedang gambar 1. menggambarkan tentang strategi meningkatkan capaian pendidikan, yang digambarkan melalui sumbu x (efektivitas pembelajaran melalui kurikulum, dan peningkatan kompetensi dan prefesionalitas guru), y (pembelajaran siswa aktif berbasis kompetensi) dan z (lama tinggal di sekolah dalam arti penambahan jam pelajaran).

Rasionalitas penambahan jam pelajaran dapat dijelaskan bahwa perubahan proses pembelajaran (dari siswa diberi tahu menjadi siswa mencari tahu) dan proses penilaian (dari berbasis output menjadi berbasis proses dan output) memerlukan penambahan jam pelajaran. Di banyak negara, seperti AS dan Korea Selatan, akhirakhir ini ada kecenderungan dilakukan menambah jam pelajaran. Diketahui juga bahwa perbandingan dengan negara-negara lain menunjukkan jam pelajaran di Indonesia relatif lebih singkat. Bagaimana dengan pembelajaran di Finlandia yang relatif singkat. Jawabnya, di negara yang tingkat pendidikannya berada di peringkat satu dunia, singkatnya pembelajaran didukung dengan pembelajaran tutorial yang baik.

Penyusunan kurikulum 2013 yang menitikberatkan pada penyederhanaan, tematik-integratif mengacu pada kurikulum 2006 di mana ada beberapa permasalahan di antaranya; (i) konten kurikulum yang masih terlalu padat, ini ditunjukkan dengan banyaknya mata pelajaran dan banyak materi yang keluasan dan tingkat kesukarannya melampaui tingkat perkembangan usia anak; (ii) belum sepenuhnya berbasis kompetensi sesuai dengan tuntutan fungsi dan tujuan pendidikan nasional; (iii) kompetensi belum menggambarkan secara holistik domain sikap, keterampilan, dan pengetahuan; beberapa kompetensi yang dibutuhkan sesuai dengan perkembangan kebutuhan (misalnya pendidikan karakter, metodologi pembelajaran aktif, keseimbangan soft skills dan hard skills, kewirausahaan) belum terakomodasi di dalam kurikulum; (iv) belum peka dan tanggap terhadap perubahan sosial yang terjadi pada tingkat lokal, nasional, maupun global; (v) standar proses pembelajaran belum menggambarkan urutan pembelajaran yang rinci sehingga membuka peluang penafsiran yang beraneka ragam dan berujung pada pembelajaran yang berpusat pada guru; (vi) standar penilaian belum mengarahkan pada penilaian berbasis kompetensi (proses dan hasil) dan belum secara tegas menuntut adanya remediasi secara berkala; dan (vii) dengan KTSP memerlukan dokumen kurikulum yang lebih rinci agar tidak menimbulkan multi tafsir.

skema2

skema3

Skema 2 menggambarkan tentang kesenjangan kurikulum yang ada pada konsep kurikulum saat ini dengan konsep ideal. Kurikulum 2013 mengarah ke konsep ideal. Sedang skema 3 menjelaskan alasan terhadap pengembangan kurikulum 2013.

Sumber : kemdiknas.go.id


Sekilas tentang pengembangan kurikulum 2013

14 Januari, 2013

Tema pengembangan kurikulum 2013 adalah dapat menghasilkan insan Indonesia yang produktif, kreatif, inovatif, dan afektif melalui penguatan sikap , keterampilan , dan pengetahuan  yang terintegrasi. Diakui dalam perkembangan kehidupan dan ilmu pengetahuan abad 21 kini ,memang telah terjadi pergeseran baik ciri maupun model pembelajaran. Inilah yang diantisipasi pada kurikulum 2013.

Skema 1 menunjukkan pergeseran paradigma belajar abad 21 yang berdasarkan ciri abad 21 dan model pembelajaran yang harus dilakukan.

iklan2-skema1

iklan2-gambar1

iklan2-gambar2

Sedang gambar 1 adalah posisi kurikulum 2013 yang terintegrasi sebagaimana tema pada pengembangan kurikulum 2013. Sudah barang tentu untuk mencapai tema itu, dibutuhkan proses pembelajaran yang mendukung kreativitas. Itu sebabnya perlu merumuskan kurikulum yang mengedepankan pengalaman personal melalui proses mengamati, menanya, menalar, dan mencoba (observation based learning) untuk meningkatkan kreativitas peserta didik. Di samping itu, dibiasakan bagi peserta didik untuk bekerja dalam jejaringan melalui collaborative learning. Pertanyaannya, pada pengembangan kurikulum 2013 ini, apa saja elemen kurikulum yang berubah? Empat standar dalam kurikulum meliputi standar kompetensi lulusan, proses, isi, dan standar penilaian akan berubah sebagaimana ditunjukkan dalam skema elemen perubahan.

Perubahan yang Diharapkan

Pengembangan kurikulum­­ 2013, selain untuk memberi jawaban terhadap beberapa permasalahan yang melekat pa­da kurikulum 2006, bertujuan ju­ga untuk mendorong peserta didik atau siswa, mampu lebih baik dalam melakukan observasi, bertanya, bernalar, dan meng­omunikasikan (mempresentasikan), apa yang di­ per­oleh atau diketahui setelah siswa menerima materi pembelaj­aran.

iklan2-skema2

Melalui pendekatan itu di­harapkan siswa kita memiliki kom­petensi sikap, keterampilan, dan pengetahuan yang jauh lebih ba­ik. Mereka akan lebih kreatif, inovatif, dan lebih produktif. Sedikitnya ada lima entitas, masing-masing peserta didik, pendidik dan tenaga kepe­ndidikan, manajemen satuan pendidikan, Negara dan bangsa, serta masyarakat umum, yang diharapkan mengalami perubahan. Skema 2 menggam­barkan perubahan yang diharapkan pada masing-masing en­itas.

Sumber : Kemdiknas.go.id


Discussion Text

24 November, 2011

What is discussion text? Discussion is a text which presents a problematic discourse. This problem will be discussed from different points of view. This kind of text is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social text. Read the following example of discussion text!

1.

The Pros and Cons of School Uniform

School uniforms are dress codes that are determined by the teaching institutions and students has to follow the designed code obediently everyday. Many people believe that school uniforms should be applied but the others don’t.

Uniforms have various advantages for both the family and the child. A united school apparel can relief a financial stress of the backs of many families. As kids tend to compete and imitate each other, the race of following new trends in fashion or, providing different attire for every school day is considered a financial burden, not every family can afford it.

Additionally, a uniform creates a sense of equality between all pupils. Young kids tend to judge others according to their look and what they wear. Uniting their school attire will draw their attention to other criteria and, the only advantage of one student over another would be personality, academic achievement or being good at sports.

On the other hand, as repetition can lead to boredom, children can get frustrated of wearing same thing to school every day. Also, prevent their first steps of individuality by taking away their right to choose what to wear on their own free well.

In conclusion, I believe uniforms aren’t meant to suppress the creativity or freedom of children. It helps redirecting kids’ creativity towards more important things than outer look, and waive financial burden of their families.

Note: This example of discussion text about the pros and cons of school uniform is adapted from http://www.english-test.net/forum/ftopic40618.html

2.

“The Advantage and Disadvantage of the Internet”

Computer, tablet, mobile phone, and other devices connected to Internet have been the most outstanding innovation in the history of mankind. As with every single innovation, internet has its own advantages and disadvantages.

The target of internet has always been the communication. By the advent of computer’s Internet, our earth has reduced and has attained the form of a global village. Now we can communicate in a fraction of second with a person who is sitting in the other parts of the world. Today for better communication, we can avail the facilities of e-mail; we can chat for hours with our loved ones. There are plenty messenger services in offering. With help of such services, it has become very easy to establish a kind of global friendship.

However, Internet also has disadvantageous sides. One of them is the wide spread of unsuitable content for kids. It is a very serious issue and related to children’s healthy mental life. There are thousands of such inappropriate contents on the Internet which can be easily found.

Though, internet can also create havoc, destruction and its misuse can be very fatal, the advantages of it outweigh its disadvantages.

This example of discussion text about the advantage and disadvantage of internet is arranged from: www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-disadvantages-internet.html

3.

After High School

Going to college or getting a job right after graduating high school is the common choices of teens will likely face. Some likely choose to continue studying at college or university but the others try to find job. Here are the reasons.

Why is it so important for student to continue on to post-secondary education; university or college? The reason is that post-secondary education will allow them to get the skills and tools that they will need to help them prepare for a good career. It has been said that the more education they have the more careers will be open for them to choose from. Employers today will tend to be more open to a person with the more education.

However some of them choose to get job right after high school. They believe that education is critical but college is not. In fact, there are numerous careers, such as in healthcare, technology, operations, transportation, and the building trades, that do not require a four-year degree from college or university. Furthermore, as they advance in these careers, there is also nothing stopping them from pursing a college degree at a later age.

So, what are you doing after graduating high school? Think carefully!

This example of discussion text about life after high school is arranged from:

http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/growing/after_hs.html

http://www.r-go.ca/postsecondary.htm

http://www.quintcareers.com/college_alternatives.html


Making Meals Fit For Family

18 Juli, 2011

Polish Pierogies


Dinnertime. One recent weekday evening. George Medrek Sr. is ready for a visitor.

An electric skillet full of homemade potato-and-cheese pierogi simmers on the counter. Sour cream is on the table. All in all, he looks like the confident cook he has become.

Medrek grew up on this Polish specialty, as made by his mother and his aunt, both immigrants from Poland. Before his spotlight as a winner of our Lousy Cooks contest, he’d tried to make pierogi himself only once. He wasn’t really interested in learning how.

After his lessons with the local chefs, his prize for winning the contest, he changed his mind. He asked his aunt, Melinia Stupnckyj, for her recipe, and she walked him through the steps. His aunt, he said, makes five or six hundred pierogi at a time and donates them to her church. “She’s been doing that for 20 or 25 years,” he said. “Her recipe is the best.”

Last year, the single dad of two had only a few dinner dishes he comfortably knew how to make. He and George Jr. ate out frequently.

Since then, he’s broadened his culinary horizons considerably.

Cooking, he wrote in a recent e-mail, “has become a hobby of mine now. Since the interview, my cooking has greatly improved. I really enjoy cooking a whole lot more.”

The publicity called attention to him as a cook, or rather a non-cook, and suddenly he had expectations to live up to.

One of the first things he made last year was the lasagna he was taught to prepare at Ristorante Bartolotta, though he substitutes cottage cheese for ricotta cheese and commercial pasta sauce for the fresh tomato sauce that he said was “a little too much for me.”

George Jr., now 13, declared his dad’s lasagna to be “fantastic.” George Jr. was the force behind his dad’s selection last year as a Lousy Cook, writing a nomination letter that spelled out his father’s need for help in the kitchen.

What else has his dad been making? Lots of beef tips and mushrooms. (George Jr. doesn’t care so much for mushrooms.) Various kinds of omelets.

And beef vegetable soup – which got a big thumbs-up from George Jr. “It’s one of his best,” the seventh-grader said.

A day after this interview, when Medrek was called about his pierogi recipe, he was making breaded Sicilian steak and macaroni and cheese.

Medrek enjoys talking about what he cooks, describing step by step as someone might do who’s hosting a cooking show. He admitted to occasionally watching Rachael Ray’s “30-Minute Meals.”

One result of his heightened interest in cooking is that he and the boys eat out a lot less often. He now takes the time to plan ahead at least a couple of days.

The kids don’t seem to mind. George Jr. pronounced his dad’s cooking to be “really good.” “It’s just the flavor, the way it tastes. I can tell an improvement.”

Volunteered 9-year-old Nicholas: “He makes the best breakfast sandwiches!”

Medrek said he takes a little more time than he used to and puts more effort into his cooking.

He blushes a bit at his sons’ praise, saying only: “I try.”

But the learning process continues.

“I’m a meat and potatoes man, but I would like to get into baking more.”

He did make blueberry muffins and brownies, and the muffins weren’t bad, he said. He’s not big on sweets, but he has a weakness for a good apple pie. Perhaps he’ll try that someday.

Meanwhile, people who know him continue to ask, “What are you cooking today?”

The expectations continue, and Medrek seems equipped to fulfill them.

Recipes”Everybody’s mom, everybody’s grandma has their own version of pierogi,” said George Medrek. “My aunt’s has always been my favorite.”

Here’s that recipe.

Pierogi with Potato-Cheese Filling
Makes 2 1/2 to 3 dozen pierogi
2 ½ to 3 cups flour

1 teaspoon salt

1 egg

2 tablespoons sour cream

½ cup lukewarm water

Potato-Cheese Filling (see recipe)

½ to 1 medium onion, diced

2 to 4 tablespoons butter (divided)

Sour cream for serving

In bowl, mix together flour, salt, egg, sour cream and water, starting with 2 ½ cups flour and adding more as needed. Dough will be sticky. Turn out onto generously floured board and knead a few times, then transfer to a large bowl, cover with a clean kitchen towel and let stand at room temperature 30 minutes to 1 hour or so.

While dough rests, prepare filling.

Roll out dough to about 1/16- to 1/8-inch thickness, flouring rolling pin as needed. While rolling out, before you get it to its final thickness, flip dough over a few times. Too thin, and dough will rip when adding filling; too thick and it won’t cook properly.

Bring a large pot of generously salted water to a boil.

Meanwhile, cut dough into 3- to 4-inch circles. Add 1 to 2 tablespoons filling on one side of each circle, then fold dough over to enclose. Press edges together to seal.

Drop pierogi in boiling water a few at a time and cook about 8 to 10 minutes. Pierogi will float to top as they cook. Stir occasionally. Pierogi are done when dough turns slightly opaque, and there may be slight wrinkling around filling.

Meanwhile, pan-fry onions in 1 to 2 tablespoons butter in a skillet. Lower heat and keep warm.

As pierogi are done, add to a separate skillet with remaining butter, cover and keep warm over low heat. Serve hot with sour cream and onions from pan.

Note: Alternatively, you can add remaining butter to onions and then add cooked pierogi to skillet with onions.

Potato-cheese filling:
4 to 5 medium-size potatoes

½ cup shredded sharp cheddar cheese

Salt and pepper, to taste

Peel potatoes, cut in half and cook in boiling water until done, about 20 minutes. Drain and mash with cheese until thoroughly incorporated. Add salt and pepper to taste.


There Is A Girl This Morning

17 Juli, 2011


There is a girl this morning who will wake up before anyone else in her family. She will start the fire and begin to make the matoke and beans that will be their breakfast. She has four brothers and a Mother to cook for, her Father is in the woods making what living he can for them by hunting. She empties the last of the water from her yellow plastic jerry can into the pot on the fire. As the water heats she takes the empty jerry can and begins her walk to the well. The walk to the well is pleasant enough, few people are awake and the day is still and quiet although already quite warm. Mosquitos bite her legs as she walks but she doesn’t notice them. After a short walk down a very steep and muddy hill she reaches the well. This well is nothing more than a pipe protruding out of the earth and pouring water into a little alcove. She knows better than to take water from the little pool the pipe creates. That stagnant water would bring disease and death to her family. She wades up to her knees in the pool and puts her large jerry can directly under the pipe and it begins to fill. The can gets heavier and heavier as it fills with water and her arms ache to keep it in place just a little longer until it’s full. Finally water reaches the top of the jerry can. She lifts it with all of her strength onto her head and begins the treacherous walk back up the slippery steep hill. She knows that if even a little bit of water spills she will have to go back to the well and start again. She walks slowly but confidently up the hill. This isn’t her first trip to the well. Since she learned to walk she has been making this trek with progressively larger and larger jerry cans. The one she carries today is the largest and weighs almost as much as she does. She never reaches a hand up to the can balanced on her head- this comes from years of practice and the jerry can doesn’t so much as move no matter how steep the hill or long the walk. By the time she returns home with the fresh water, breakfast is boiling and she removes it from the fire and divides it into exactly equal portions. How she does this type of division without a measuring cup is almost mystical. Mathematicians couldn’t divide this breakfast more equally. Her brothers and her Mother join her outside for breakfast. They eat quickly and quietly- this might be all they get for the day. After they finish this amazing girl washes the bowls with the least amount of water possible, she doesn’t want to have to walk back to the well until this evening, yet the dishes are somehow spotless. Her brothers pick up the rope they have made out of leaves and begin playing. They are young, they are all young the girl included, but the task of cleaning their home is left to her and her Mother. The boys have the liberty to play. She grabs the broom from outside the curtain door and enters her home. It is dark inside and cooler, she sweeps the dirt and dust into piles on the floor and then carefully, with the utmost caution, sweeps it into a makeshift pan and dumps it outside. Her back aches but she hardly notices it, she just wants to finish her morning chores so she can join her brothers outside and play for a while before it’s time for her evening chores. Finally she finishes. Outside she and her brothers and a few other children from their road create games to play. Duck duck goosie is her favorite but the boys would rather kick and throw around a worn out almost unrecognizable football they have. She doesn’t protest and just enjoys the freedom of being able to, for just a minute, play. She doesn’t go to school, none of them do, their parents don’t have the money to send them so instead she is learning everything a women needs to keep a house and her brothers will soon go into the woods with her Father to learn how to hunt. Far too soon, it seems, her Mother is calling her and her brothers to come and bathe. This is her signal that her playtime is over and chores begin again. For her brothers this is their signal to throw a tantrum and cry all the way to the bath. They hate the cold water and resent being made to bathe. She doesn’t mind the bathing but she would rather not have to start the fire, cook the dinner, and walk to the well again. The girl is grateful to have a dinner though and she holds onto that as she makes her way back home. Her day ends as it began and tomorrow morning it will begin again


I Think I Broke My Logic Bone

17 Juli, 2011

Sometimes, I do stupid things. Things I know are stupid but for some reason just keeping doing anyway. Why? Why do I do these stupid stupid things? For years I have wondered about it. Last night, I realized why. I broke my logic bone. Of course! All these years the answer to my problems alluded me because it was so logical and my logic bone was broken so I couldn’t physically be logical. Duh.

I try really hard to eat well. I have to watch my figure, you know. Sometimes, if I know I’ve eaten really well all day, I will treat myself to an ice cream after dinner. All day long, I will think about how delicious that ice cream will taste later. Usually, everything goes according to plan and I delight myself in ice cream heaven. But, on several occasions, I have felt really sick by the end of the day. Does that stop me? No. I could literally be throwing up but I will take a break from vomiting to eat that ice cream I promised myself. Even though I know it will only make me feel worse. Doesn’t matter. I’m going to eat that ice cream come hell or high water! I always regret it. The culprit behind this ridiculousness? My broken logic bone.

I love fruit. I especially love melon. I eat a LOT of watermelon, and honeydew melon, and cantaloupe. So much, in fact, that I have on many, many occasions made myself sick from eating too much of it. For reals. MANY occasions. You would think after the first time, I know not to eat so much melon. Nope. You would definitely think after the third or fourth time, that I would never eat that much melon again. You would be wrong. I will eat that much melon again and I will make myself sick again. Why? Broken logic bone.

I wear a lot of skirts. For work, for fun, I just like to wear skirts. Sometimes, they get caught in my car door when I get in. Instead of opening the door back up and moving my skirt, what do I do? I just yank it. And it rips. And this has happened to me more than once. Why didn’t I learn the first time? Broken logic bone.

I know I shouldn’t mix my colors and whites in the wash. I KNOW that. But I do it. A lot. And every time I end up with formerly white now vagueishly blue or pink shirts. Huh. Why in the world would I do that more than once? Broken logic bone.

Bangs aren’t a great look for me. I’ve tried several times and it just never looks quite right. I know that. I know I’m not someone who can pull-off bangs. Doesn’t matter. Every few years, I decide I want bangs. Who’s to blame? My broken logic bone.

You would think that it would be easy to fix my broken logic bone. Not so. It’s been broken so long, it’s healed all wrong. My logic now walks with a very severe limp. It would probably take a lot of corrective surgeries to fix it. And who has that kind of time and money??! Not me. A broken logic bone isn’t going to kill me. Although….actually…..it might. Uh oh.