COMPLETE OVERVIEW (Understanding of Kinds of Text)

Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used, texts are divided into several types. They are narrative, recount, descriptive, report, explanation, analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, procedure, discussion, review, anecdote, spoof, and news item. These variations are known as GENRES.

NARRATIVE
Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Complication
3. Resolution
4. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged

# 1. ROMEO AND JULIET
In the town of Verona there lived two families, the Capulets and the Montagues. They engaged in a bitter feud. Among the Montagues was Romeo, a hot-blooded young man with an eye for the ladies. One day, Romeo attended the feast of the Capulets’, a costume party where he expected to meet his love, Rosaline, a haughty beauty from a well-to-do family. Once there, however, Romeo’s eyes felt upon Juliet, and he thought of Rosaline no more.
The vision of Juliet had been invading his every thought. Unable to sleep, Romeo returned late that night to the Juliet’s bedroom window. There, he was surprised to find Juliet on the balcony, professing her love for him and wishing that he were not a “Montague”, a name behind his own. “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” Romeo was ready to deny his name and professed his love. The two agreed to meet at nine o-clock the next morning to be married.
Early the next morning, Romeo came to Friar Lawrence begging the friar to marry him to Juliet. The Friar performed the ceremony, praying that the union might someday put an end to the feud between the two families. He advised Romeo kept the marriage a secret for a time.
On the way home, Romeo chanced upon his friend Mercutio arguing with Tybalt, a member of the Capulet clan. That qurreling last caused Merquito died. Romeo was reluctant no longer. He drew his sword and slew Tybalt died. Romeo realized he had made a terrible mistake. Then Friar Lawrence advised Romeo to travel to Mantua until things cool down. He promised to inform Juliet.
In the other hand, Juliet’s father had decided the time for her to marry with Paris. Juliet consulted Friar Lawrence and made a plot to take a sleeping potion for Juliet which would simulate death for three days. The plot proceeded according to the plan. Juliet was sleeping in death.
Unfortunately, The Friar’s letter failed to reach Romeo. Under the cover of darkness, he broke into Juliet’s tomb. Romeo kissed the lips of his Juliet one last time and drank the poison. Meanwhile, the effects of the sleeping potion wear off. Juliet woke up calling for Romeo. She found her love next to her but was lying dead, with a cup of poison in his hand. She tried to kiss the poison from his lips, but failed. Then Juliet put out his dagger and plunged it into her breast. She died

Note: Romeo and Juliet is a famous play by William Shakespeare. This example of narrative text about romantic and tragic story was written and simplified from love-story.com

RECOUNT
Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives
Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.
The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure

Recount is very similar to narrative. Recount explores the series of events which happened to participant/s. These events are the main element in composing recount text. However it just focuses on the events themselves. It does not include the conflict inside.

The events will be told in chronological order based on time and place. If we get recount text with complete generic structure, it will be constructed by structuring orientation, events and re-orientation. The absence of complication/problem/conflict in the generic structure is actually differentiating from narrative. Arranging these series of event in beautiful and attractive way is the power of writer in composing recount text. Below is piece of passage which can be read as recount text.

# 1 My Rush Time as a Journalist

I usually woke up at eight o’clock a.m. and went to the Press Center to check the daily schedule of briefings and press conferences. It was usually held by the United Nation officials or disaster mitigation team.

It was challenging to visit different refugee camps to find soft stories, human interest stories. After that I went back to the Press Center to cover the press conferences of the day.

It was heart breaking when I saw these survivors fight for food and secondhand clothing. Unfortunately as they said, the food and clothing were limited and inadequate. Emerging to glaring, fool noon, it was time to go back to Press Center to write stories and race against time. I was always fearing that the internet would come crushing down.

After everything was done, only then I remembered to eat. Most times, I only ate once a day because I always had to rush and again it was difficult to find food. I had to travel quite far. I needed to spend a 30 to 45 minutes by car just to find fresh food.

DESCRIPTIVE
Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Identification
2. Description
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms

#1. CLEOPATRA
One of the most famous women in world history was Cleopatra VII. She was the brilliant and beautiful last Pharaoh of Egypt. Historically, she became queen of Egypt in 51 B.C. at the age of eighteen. She was a Ptolemy, descended from one of Alexander the Great’s generals. When she was twenty-one, Julius Caesar became her lover. Seven years later she met Antony. The romantic tragic relationship continued until they died by suicide in 30 B.C.

Cleopatra was legendary. She was famous not only for her breathtaking beauty but also for her great intellect. She had brown eyes and they were shaped like cat eyes. Her skin was in fact an olive shade, darker than Hollywood actress Liz Taylor who potrayed her in the film ‘Cleopatra’ in 1963. She had medium dark brown hair, about to the middle of her shoulder blades. She had a reputation as an extraordinarily sensuous woman.

Cleopatra was a woman of remarkable poise and unusual intelligence. She was highly educated. She spoke proficiently in nine languages and also skilled in mathematics. She is often considered to be a stunning seductress though she was studying to be a nun. Cleopatra was a very intelligent queen and a politician with a great charisma.

Note: The story of Antony and Cleopatra involved true characters and later was dramatized by William Shakespeare. This example of descriptive text depicthing what Cleopara looks likes is arranged from enote.com, theholidayspot.com, and current.com

REPORT
Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is.
Generic Structure
1. General classification
2. Description
Dominant Language Feature
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense

#1. Mangrove Trees
A mangrove is a tropical marine tree. Mangroves have special aerial roots and salt-filtering tap roots which enable them to thrive in brackish water. Brackish water is salty but not as salty as sea water. Mangrove trees are commonly planted and found in coastal areas. Mangroves can serve as walls of protection for natural disaster in coastal area like tsunami. According to BBC News, healthy mangrove forests had helped save lives in the Asia disaster tsunami and people tended to respect these natural barriers even more, especially after the tsunami.
There are several species of mangrove tree found all over the world. Some prefer more salinity, while others like to be very-close to a large fresh water source such as river. Some prefer areas that are sheltered from waves. Some species have their roots covered with sea water every day during high tide. Other species grow on dry land but are still part of the ecosystem. The Times of India reported that rare species of mangrove had been found and was also known as the looking-glass tree, probably because the leaves are silver-coated.
Mangroves need to keep their trunk and leave above the surface of the water. Yet they also need to be firmly attached to the ground so they are not moved by waves.
Any part of root that appears above the water flows oxygen to the plant under water surface. as the soil begin to build up, these roots procedure additional roots that become embedded in the soil.

EXPLANATION
Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.
Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.

# 1.How Venus Eclipse Happens

On May 16, 2010, people in most regions in the world have seen a very rare natural phenomenon. It was Venus eclipse. It was very rare amazing natural event. It was reported that the Venus eclipse will seen again in the future in 2050. Do you know how this rare Venus eclipse happens?
Well, actually Venus eclipse is like Sun eclipse. Venus eclipses occurs when the position of the earth, moon and Venus is parallel. Venus planet will slowly disappear for a moment because it is covered the surface of the Moon. Venus planet seems to move to the back side of the Moon.
The moon and planets are sharing a similar apparent path in the sky. That is why, it is not unusual for the moon to appear to pass close to Venus. In fact, the moon appears somewhere near it about once a month. However, most people don’t see these events because they are visible in the evening sky only half the time, and then only for a short period after sunset. The apparent closeness varies from month to month as well.
Note: This example of explanation text about how Venus eclipse happens is arranged from beranda-jiwa.info and earthsky.org

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Reiteration/Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition

#1.Why Exercise is Important
The majority of us claim that we do not have time for exercise. We feel too busy to do that. However, many expert said that exercise has great role in making our body healthy

Being physically active offers many advantage. In physical reword, exercise can reduce weight then our body will become fitter. Exercise is also believed to reduce stress levels, improve sleep patterns, and reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer. Beside physical advantage, exercise also brings good effects mentally. Due to the fitter body, exercise can make us feel refreshed and happy then we can increase our life quality and expectancy.

How can we do exercise while we are busy? Such question is commonly found among us. Actually exercise can be done in simple ways. We can go walking while shopping. In the office we can take stair rather than lift to run up and down. Or we can go cycling while enjoy the leisure time.

Over all, doing exercise is little bit difficult in busy life but the little bit of exercise will help better.
Adapted from: http://www.hifit.co.uk/health-breaks/importance-exercise.htm

HORTATORY EXPOSITION
Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation
Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition

Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done

#1. Gesang Should hold a National Hero Status
An example of hortatory texts which exposes arguments and persuades the readers. Read the text bellow!

“Those who don’t learn from history are condemned to repeat it” and “A great nation is one which fully appreciates its heroes.” say popular English aphorism and national adage. Then, proposing an important person who has taken a role in our nation history is important. I think Gesang should be a national hero.
Who have never heard Bengawan Solo song? I doubt it if there is. This keroncong song has been a part of national voices. Gesang is a senior composer whose songs gained fame all the way to Japan. He has received a number of awards in art and everyone will admit that his art talent was dedicated to this nation.
Government has declared the other great composer; WR. Suratman and Ismail Marzuki as national Heroes. Gesang might not be compared to others, but in my opinion, Gesang is as great as them. All of them are maestros. Due to his keroncong music maestro, Gesang has taken a role in building our national identity.
It is obvious that government should name Gesang National Hero. We should not delay and wait for, in case, our neighbor countries or other international communities go a head to recognize him and grant an award for what he deserves.

Note: This example of hortatory text about nominating Gesang as a national hero is adapted and arranged from The Jakarta Post in Minister supports Gesang’s national hero nomination, Surakarta proposes hero status Gesang, and heroes and heroism issues

PROCEDURE
Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely
Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim
2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms

#1.MAKING CANDLES

Making coloured and scented candles is really quick and simple. What’s more, you’ll save so much money. If making candle is easy, why do you ever bought one from a shop? What you need in making candle are wax, moulds, wick, dye discs, essential oils, and a double boiler. All these materials are available from craft shops. Or if you do not want to buy them, you can improvise with an old saucepan, pyrex jug, or even a sturdy can, in a pot of water. After providing the materials, follow this procedure or instruction in making candles!
First of all, melt the wax. All wax has a flash point, so to prevent it bursting into flames, you must melt it in a double boiler, with water in the bottom pan.
Then, prepare the mould with the wick. Thread the wick through the mould and make sure that you leave a good few centimetres sticking out of the hole in the bottom.
After that, add the scent. If you want a scented candle, add a few drops of essential oil to the melted wax. You can use any essential oil you like, as long as it doesn’t contain water.
Next step, pour the wax into the mould. Try and tip the wax into the mould quickly, all in one go, to minimise spillage and air bubbles.
Then, release the bubbles and top it up. Releasing the air bubbles will eventually make the candle sink, so you will need to top it up with more melted wax.
Finally, remove it from the mould. After four or five hours, the candle can be taken out of its mould.
Your candle is now ready for display. Remember, you must always leave it for a day before lighting it.
Source: http://www.channel4.com/4homes/design-style/how-to-guides/how-to-make-candles-intro-09-04-21_p_1.html

DISCUSSION
Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)
Generic Structure:
1. Issue
2. Arguments for and against
3. Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner

#1.PROs ANd CONs of UN (National Exam)

National exam becomes the hot topic in most of discussions. Though the Supreme Court has rejected an appeal by the go-vernment on the organization of the national exams, the controversy over whether it is necessary to maintain the national exams (UN) has continued. Some debates include the primary questions such as; does the quality of Indonesia education depend on the national exam?, will the quality of the Indonesian education system worsen without natipnal exam?
People, who support the national exam explain that the quality of the Indonesia education system will drop without the national exam, so they try to defend the current system.
Hoever there are people who disagree with the opinion. Those who against this national exam kept in our high school education say that it doesn’t need the national exams because the quality of education does not just depend on the national exam. Further, the national exam only measures a small portion of students’ competence in specific subjects, and does not measure students’ competences throughout the semester.
In fact, the national examination can still be useful as an instrument to evaluate or detect the level of students’ cognitive competence in several subjects, on a national scale.
Arranged from: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/12/19/quality-education-and-national-exams.html

REVIEW
Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience
dominant Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Evaluation
3. Interpretative Recount
4. Evaluation
5. Evaluative Summation
Dominant Language features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor

#1.2012 Film Review
2012 is Roland Emmerich’s film which uses the Mayan calendar and other end-of-days prophecies for their doomsday scenario. It imagines the world coming to an end in 2012.

2012 film brings off a series of wonders. The movie hits its peak early on. It starts when Cusack drives a limo through the streets of Los Angeles as freeways and skyscrapers crumble all around him from the shock of a 10.5 earthquake. The preposterous flying sequence is equally thrilling. The climax occurs aboard the giant ark, when an equipment malfunction almost threatens the entire mission.

Unfortunately, the crucial sequence is not filmed or edited with the requisite clarity. In 2012 film, Emmerich leaves us befuddled as to exactly what is happening to whom. However, Emmerich’ 2012 deserves credit for offbeat casting. Cusack supplies his trademark hangdog charm. McCarthy has perhaps his best role ever as Peet’s cocky. Danny Glover lends dignity to the role of the tormented president. Chiwetel Ejiofor, as the chief scientist, brings a moving sense of anguish to a stock role. Platt has fun playing the villain of the piece, and Woody Harrelson also chews the scenery as a bug-eyed radio prophet trying to warn his listeners about Armageddon.

All in one, 2012’s cinematography, production design and visual effects are awards-worthy. Music also propels the movie. It presents American Idol runner-up, Adam Lambert, who provides a rousing anthem over the end credits.
Simplified from:
http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/film-reviews/2012-film-review-1004041300.story

ANECDOTE
Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident
Generic Structure:
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Reaction
5. Coda.
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using exclamations, rhetorical question or intensifiers
2. Using material process
3. Using temporal conjunctions

It is bit difficult to find out some examples of anecdote text. Most texts available over the Internet which are labeled as anecdote just referring to funny story. Meanwhile, in term of text type or text genres, anecdote text is separated to spoof which has main element of funny thing. Actually the point of anecdote is the CODA (hikma), what do the participants learn from the series of event in the story. The following text is good example of anecdote. Take a look!

#.1 Snake in the Bathroom
How would you like to find a snake in you bath?
We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and I decided that we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap.
Suddenly to my horror, a snake’s head appeared in the plug hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us.
For an instant I stood there quite paralyzed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom.
Anna, who was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she’d probably have lean over the bath to get a better look.
We found out later that it was a black mamba, a poisonous kind of snake. It had obviously been fast asleep, curled up at the bottom of the nice warm water-pipe. It must have had an awful shock when the cold water came trickling down! But nothing to the shock I got! Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water
Note: contoh / example of anecdote text is recomposed from karupin’blog

#2.From Bankrupt Candle to Best Seller Soap;
In 1879, William Procter and James Gamble’s best seller was candles. They had begun business together in Cincinnati. While they were in peak of popularity, the candle company was in trouble as Thomas Edison had invented the light bulb. It looked as if their candle product would become obsolete. People would like to use light bulb and would not use candle anymore.

The fears became reality when the market for candles plummeted since the candle product were now sold only for special occasions. The outlook of candle company appeared to be bleak and depressing for Procter and Gamble. The situation was more miserable. Several months later the accident occurred. Without thinking one of the employee left to go to lunch and forgot to turn off the machine. Since the machinery was left in operation, air would work its way into the mixture.

However after discussing with his supervisor, the employee decided not to discard the mixture. Instead, he poured the mixture into frames and the soap hardened. Thus, the floating soap was born. Harley Procter decided to give the soap a name that people could remember. Then the soap was named IVORY. This ivory soap became the mainstay of the Procter and Gamble Company.

Amazingly, Procter and Gamble began to receive letters from buyers of this “accidental” soap. They wanted more of the soap that floats. Ivory soap was introduced to the marketplace. Even though this interesting formula was one of their best products, they were perplexed as to how this happened. The mysterious formula for the floating soap was resolved when the lunchtime accident was revealed.

Note: this example of anecdote text is arranged from liraz.com and essortment.com. Anecdote text is similar to narrative and also spoof and recount. What make different is the generic structure. Anecdote text is not only a matter of funny story like we often hear. Anecdote tex, in term of text type is an inspirational story, a story which a bring a CODA which is included in the end of the text

SPOOF
Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Twist
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged

Commonly we define spoof and anecdote are similar, even both are same. Spoof and anecdote tend to be defined as text which relate to funny story and unusual incidents. Well it can be true as both bring the function mostly to entertain and share to readers. However, is spoof text like anecdote? If not, then what is the difference between spoof text and anecdote? Actually what is spoof text? and what is anecdote text? Well, let’s go on. I have some comment which are identical. The point of the comments are asking what is the difference between spoof and anecdote text, or how to differ spoof from anecdote. From that view, this post tries to go on.
We often find understanding about the funny story in our society life. Every funny story is often defined as anecdote. In this term, anecdote is pointing to “cerita lelucon” or “konyol”. Most the story are funny because they have unpredictable funny things in the end. All those types of story are often socially called anecdote and they are going on. However, the unpredictable thing in the end of story which is often funny is called TWIST. This Twist, in term of text type, belongs to spoof. While in the generic structure of anecdote, we can not find the twist. So it might be the funny story which we often hear in our social life and defined as anecdote story is not the the anecdote text in term of text types we are learning.
In text types discussion, Anecdote text has generic structure on how it is composed and the generic structures of anecdote are abstract, orientation, crisis, reaction and coda. while we know that the generic structure of spoof text is orientation, events, and twist. So the point is there are different generic structures between spoof text and anecdote text. Spoof ends with twist while anecdote is accomplished by coda. That is the point, how to differ easily between spoof and anecdote text

#.1 Goat Jumping into Deep Hole
Two men were walking through the woods and come across a very big deep hole. “Wow…that looks deep.” One replied,”Sure does… toss a few pebbles in there and we will see how deep this hole is.” Then they pick up a few pebbles and throw them in and wait… no noise “Geeez. That is really deep… here.. throw one of these great big rocks down there. Those should make a noise.” After that, they pick up a couple football-sized rocks and toss them into the hole and wait… and wait. but no noise they heard.

Wow.. They were really impressed with how deep hole it was. They look at each other in amazement. One gets a determined look on his face and says, “Hey…over here in the weeds, there’s a railroad tie. Help me carry it over here. When we toss that sucker in this hole, it’s must make some noise.”

The two men drag the heavy tie over to the hole and heave it in. But, not a sound comes from the hole. Suddenly, out of the nearby woods, a goat appears, running like the wind. It rushes toward the two men, then right past them, running as fast as its legs will carry it. Suddenly it leaps in the air and into the hole. The goat disappeared into the deep hole.

The two men are astonished with what they’ve just seen. How could a goat jump into the hole? Then, not long after that, out of the woods comes a farmer. He seemed to seek something and asked to the two men, “Hey two guys… have you seen my goat out here?”

Feeling amazing with what they saw of a goat jumping to the hole, they answer straightly,”You bet we did! Craziest thing I’ve ever seen! A goat came running like crazy and just jumped into this hole!”

The farmer thought a moment and said, “That could not have been my goat. Because my goat was chained to a railroad tie.” Then he left the two men.

NEWS ITEM
Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Newsworthy event(s)
2. Background event(s)
3. Sources
Dominant Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.


Indonesian Maid beheaded; a news item text

An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer, the Saudi Interior Minister said.
The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country.
The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. Rape, murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom.
Last year, Saudi Arabia, which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria, Islamic law executed more than 130 people.
(Taken from: BBC News)

Generic Structure Analysis
Main event; an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia.
Background 1; the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos.
Background 2; serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia.
Background 3; Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year.
Resource; the Saudi Interior Minister statement.
Language Feature Analysis
Focussing circumtances; law of serious crimes.
Using material process; behead, execute, carry, etc

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