Beberapa jenis teks yang harus diketahui dan dipahami oleh siswa SMP dan SMU sekarang antara lain:
Melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur.
Struktur teks :
* Pendahuluan (orientasi), yaitu memberikan informasi tentang apa, siapa, di mana dan kapan;
* Laporan (rentetan) peristiwa, kegiatan yang terjadi, yang biasanya disampaikan secara berurut
Last Friday our school went to Centennial Park for a picnic
First, our teachers marked the rolls and the we got on the buses. On the buses, everyone was chatting and eating. When we arrived at the park, some students played cricket, some played cards but others went for a walk with the teachers. At lunchtime, we sat together and had our picnic. Finally, at two o’clock we left for school.
We had a great day.
Tujuan komunikatif : memberi petunjuk cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah.
(Procedure; the communicative purpose is to tell the steps of making or doing something.)
Generic Structure: Goal/Aim – Materials/Tools – Steps/Methods
Language Features of Procedure text: Imperative form. ( examples: Cut, Pour, Don’t mix,)
Action verbs: turn, put, don’t mix
Connectives: (untuk mengurutkan kegiatan), examples: then, while.
Adverbials (untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat), examples: for five minutes, two centimetres from the top.
SESAME DROP BISCUITS
2 cups flour
1 ½ teaspoons baking powder
½ reaspoon each baking soda and salt
Butter or margarine
2 tablespoons sesame seed
1 cup buttermilk
In a large bowl stir together flour, baking powder, soda and salt.
2 knives or pastry blender cut in ½ cup butter until particles are fine .
Stir in sesame seed.
Add buttermilk to flour mixture and stir with a fork just until mixed.
Drop by tablespoons on greased cookies sheet.
Bake in preheated 450 degrees oven until light brown. 12 to 14 minutes.
Serve at once with butter.
Definition and Social Function of Anecdote
Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination.
Its purpose is to entertain the readers.
Generic Structure of Anecdote
Language Feature of Anecdote
1. Using exclamation words; it’s awful!, it’s wonderful!, etc
2. Using imperative; listen to this
3. Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4. Using action verb; go, write, etc
5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6. Using simple past tense
Blessing Behind Tragedy
There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were Clark family with nine children. They had a dream to go to America. The family worked and saved. They were making plan to travel with their children to America. It had taken several years but finally they had saved enough money. They had gotten passport. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America.
The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. However few days before their departure, the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The doctor sewed up the boy. Because of the possibility of getting rabies, there were being quarantined for long days. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The family dreams were dashed. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned.
The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. He shed tears of disappointment. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune.
Five days latter, the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The ship, the mighty Titanic, had shank. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was.
The Clak family should have been on that ship, but because of the bitten son by a dog, they were left behind. When the father heard the news, he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. He thanked God for saving their lives. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2)
Abstract : Everybody has a dream. You have and so do I. When the dream will come true, there is something wrong last minute before it. What will we feel? What will we do?
Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. They had dream to travel to America. They prepared well for their plan
Crisis: few days before they went to America, his youngest son was bitten by a dog. It made they were being quarantined. They had to forget their plan.
Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. The father was angry with his son and God. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it.
Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing.
Tujuan Komunikatif: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis.
Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala- gejala sosial.
Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum misalnya tentang rumah sederhana dengan mendekripsikan ciri-ciri subyek tersebut sehingga layak dikategorikan rumah sederhana, dsb.
Fax, the short term for facsimile is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies (facsimiles) of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. The word telefax, short for telefacsimile, for “make a copy at a distance”, is also used as a synonym. The device is also known as a telecopier in certain industries. When sending documents to people at large distances, faxes have a distinct advantage over postal mail in that the delivery is nearly instantenous, yet its disadvantages in quality and its proprietary format have relegated it to a position beneath email as the prevailing form of electronic document tranferral.
Tujuan Komunikatif : Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca dengan pengalaman nyata atau khayal.
Ciri naratif adalah adanya unsur konflik (masalah) dan resolusi (penyelesaian masalah).
Jumlah masalah atau penyelesaiannya mungkin hanya satu, mungkin juga lebih.
* Pengenalan latar: tokoh, waktu, dan tempat.
* Pengembangan konflik.
* Penyelesaian konflik.
* Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh atau pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita.
Contoh Recount :
It was a warm day in March. I was very excited. The day had finally come. I was in the rowing team for the Olympics. I got up very early and exercised as always. Then after breakfast I drove to Drummoyne. My team arrived and at last it was time to start.
Ready, set and the starting gun went off. We began in the third position and were slowly moving closer. There they were. We could see the second boat and then we did it.
We moved past. My arms were aching. My whole body was sore but we all rowed harder.
The first boat was just in front I saw a dark shadow near the boat. I looked again. What was it? I was sure it was the shape of a cigar. ‘Oh my God’, I thought, ‘I must be seeing things. A shark in Parramata River? Impossible!’
Just then I pulled my oar out of the water. ‘Oh no, why only half?’ I thought. Then I knew. I shouted to my team, ‘Shark! Shark!’ and suddenly we forgot the race. We rowed faster than ever back to shore. We made it. Phew, we were safe!
Long ago on the top of Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, there lived a dragon. He owned a large and beautiful pearl. People believed that he controlled the weather with it.
The emperor of China heard this and wanted the pearl. He sent his two sons, Wee Ping and Wee San to Borneo to steal it. The princes, together with one hundred soldiers, set sail for Borneo in twelve sailing junks.
When they arrived in Borneo, The set out immediately to find the famous mountain. Their journey up the rugged slopes of Mount Kinabalu proved very difficult. The dragon guarded his cave very fiercely and killed many of their soldiers.
Then Wee San had a clever idea. He climbed a tall tree, so he could see the dragon’s cave. He noted what time the dragon left his cave to hunt for food and what time he returned to it.
Next he ordered his men to make a fake pearl and a large kite. He waited until the dragon left his cave. Then he placed the fake pearl in a bag, slung it across his shoulder and flew up to the mountain-top on the kite. He exchanged the real pearl for the fake one and then his brother pulled his kite back to the ground.
The brothers quickly returned to their ships and set sail for China. They sailed safely home. The emperor was thrilled with the pearl and gave a big party to celebrate his sons’ return.
Tujuan Komunikatif :
memberikan informasi mengenai ciri-ciri seseorang, suatu benda atau tempat tertentu. atau orang tertentu yang sedang dibahas.
* Pengenalan: ciri-ciri seseorang, suatu benda atau tempat tertentu. atau sesuatu yang akan dideskripsikan.
* Deskripsi: menggambarkan ciri-ciri benda tersebut,misalnya berasal dari mana, warnanya, ukurannya, kesukaannya dsb.
Deskripsi ini hanya memberikan informasi mengenai benda atau orang tertentu yang sedang dibahas saja, misalnya deskripsi tentang ‘My Dog’. Ciri-ciri ‘anjing saya’ tersebut dapat berbeda dengan anjing yang lain.
What is descdiptive text?
The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like.
Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.
The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text has structure as below:
Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described.
Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics.
The Language Feature of Descriptive Text
Using attributive and identifying process.
Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.
Using simple present tense
Borobudur is Hindu – Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia.
Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.
Analyzing the Text (Generic Structure Analysis):
Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described in general; Borobudur temple
Description; describing the Borobudur temple in parts; eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics
Language Feature Analysis
Using adjective and classifiers; valuable
Using simple present tense; Borobudur is well-known,The temple is constructed, etc
The Ambarawa Train Museum houses 21 antique locomotives plus two more, which are stored in the depot. These locomotives are no longer produced; even the factories that made them no longer exist. The main building of this museum is the defunct Ambarawa railway station which was built in 1873. the station covers 127,500 m2.
The oldest in this museum is a locomotive made by Hartman Chemnitz. This locomotive, with a length of 8.58 m and a width of 2.45 m, began its operation in 1891. Using wood as fuel, the steam locomotive could run 50 km/h – its maximum speed.
A special part of a visit to this museum is a trip by train from the Ambarawa Train Museum to the defunct Bedono train station. This package tour is called Railway Mountain Tour. Why is the trip so special? Because the participants will board an antique train and the train will travel on a 4.9 kilometer-cog railway, which is the only one in the way.
Contoh contoh lain:
a. Spoof Text :
So the next morning the clown put on the gorilla suit and entered the cage before the crowd came. He felt that it was a great job. He could sleep all he wanted, played and made fun of people and he drove bigger crowds than he ever did as a clown. He pretended the gorilla successfully.
However, eventually the crowds were tired of him for just swinging on tires. He began to notice that the people were paying more attention to the lion in the next cage. Not wanting to lose the attention of his audience, he decided to make a spectacular performance. He climbed to the top of his cage, crawled across a partition, and dangled from the top to the lion’s cage. Of course, this made the lion furious, but the crowd people loved it.
At the end of the day the zoo keeper came and gave him a raise for being such a good attraction. Well, this went on for some time, he kept taunting the lion, the audience crowd grew a larger, and his salary kept going up. Then one terrible day happened. When he was dangling over the furious lion, he slipped and fell into the lion cage. The clown was really in big terrible situation. He was terrified.
Sooner the lion gathered itself and prepared to pounce. The clown was so scared. He could do nothing and he began to run round and round the cage with the lion close and closer behind. Finally, the lion could catch him. The clown started screaming and yelling, “Help me, help me!”, but the lion was quick and pounces. The clown soon found himself flat on his back looking up at the angry lion and suddenly he heard a voice from the lion’s mouth;”Shut up you idiot! Do you want to get us both fired?”.
2012 Film Review
2012 is Roland Emmerich’s film which uses the Mayan calendar and other end-of-days prophecies for their doomsday scenario. It imagines the world coming to an end in 2012.
2012 film brings off a series of wonders. The movie hits its peak early on. It starts when Cusack drives a limo through the streets of Los Angeles as freeways and skyscrapers crumble all around him from the shock of a 10.5 earthquake. The preposterous flying sequence is equally thrilling. The climax occurs aboard the giant ark, when an equipment malfunction almost threatens the entire mission.
Unfortunately, the crucial sequence is not filmed or edited with the requisite clarity. In 2012 film, Emmerich leaves us befuddled as to exactly what is happening to whom. However, Emmerich’ 2012 deserves credit for offbeat casting. Cusack supplies his trademark hangdog charm. McCarthy has perhaps his best role ever as Peet’s cocky. Danny Glover lends dignity to the role of the tormented president. Chiwetel Ejiofor, as the chief scientist, brings a moving sense of anguish to a stock role. Platt has fun playing the villain of the piece, and Woody Harrelson also chews the scenery as a bug-eyed radio prophet trying to warn his listeners about Armageddon.
All in one, 2012’s cinematography, production design and visual effects are awards-worthy. Music also propels the movie. It presents American Idol runner-up, Adam Lambert, who provides a rousing anthem over the end credits.
News Items Text which is composed daily news has generic structure; newsworthy event, background, and source. As the news item about Camp Rock 2 premiere bellow, we can see the generic structure.
Newsworthy event is what event happened which considered as newsworthy. Commonly newsworthy event is place in the first paragraph. The announcement of the Camp Rock 2 Premiere is the newsworthy event.
Background event can be the detail information of the stated newsworthy event or the outside background which closely relates to newsworthy event. The information about the soundtrack songs of Camp Rock 2 Final Jam and the plot of movie is the background events.
Source is the closing statement which can be from the participants, witness, or the official authorities. The statement of Joe to MTV that songs were really cool is the source of this example of news item text. Now see the following example of news item about the premiere announcement of sequel Camp Rock 2, The Final Jam
Camp Rock 2 The final Jam will Premieres on Disney Channel
It was announced on Tuesday that Disney Channel movie with tourmate Demi Lovato, “Camp Rock 2: The Final Jam,” will premiere on September 3 at 8 p.m. ET.
On July 27, long before they watch the sequel to the 2008 flick, fans can pick up the soundtrack, featuring 15 original songs that a press release promises will span genres from hip-hop to rock to pop.
The flick will not only have more summer lovin’ between real-life couple Lovato and Joe Jonas as Mitchie and Shane, but there will also be a little friendly rivalry between the Camp Rockers and a group of musicians at another summer camp, Camp Star, including a love interest for Nick Jonas, played by Chloe Bridges.
The JoBros promise the movie’s music will be every bit as entertaining as its plot, which has been kept a secret since the movie was shot. “The songs are really cool,” Joe told MTV News